The aim of Open Access is to make publicly-funded research accessible for everyone. Open access academic publications, which can be freely read, printed, copied, distributed, searched or otherwise used, contribute to an accelerated dissemination of research results and hence to the development of academic knowledge, the use and reuse of the research results in education, and their utilisation by members of the public and professionals.
If you have any questions about Open Access, please contact the Library’s Open Access Helpdesk: email@example.com.
1) Towards 100% open access
The Dutch government has put Open Science on the political agenda. Firstly at national level, in 2013, and then at European level during the EU Presidency in 2016.
In order to implement the European agreements in the Netherlands, in February 2017 the National Plan for Open Science (NPOS) was signed by ten parties, including the KNAW (Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences), NWO/ZonMw (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research /Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development), the VSNU (Association of Universities in the Netherlands (VSNU) and the UKB (Dutch Association of the University Libraries and National Library of the Netherlands).
An important ambition of the NPOS is to achieve 100% Open Access publication by 2020. From 2020, all academic publications funded with public money must provide direct Open Access to everyone and be reusable.
The VSNU/UKB is the lead agency behind this ambition and is initiating and coordinating joint policy between the main players involved. See also the 2018-2020 ‘Road Map’ to Open Access and the VSNU’s information page on Open Access.
Further information about Open Access, the latest news, Open Access in the Netherlands and the current Open Access agreements with publishers can be found on the Dutch national information portal openaccess.nl.
2) The UvA’s open access policy
The UvA committed itself to open access in 2005 by signing the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities. In 2017, the UvA signed the National Plan Open Science with the aim of realising the national transition to open science. One of the three spearheads of the NPOS is embracing open access while aiming towards achieving 100% open access.
‘As of 1 January 2021, UvA researchers will be required to register their academic publications immediately after publication and to upload the corresponding publisher’s version (or at least the accepted manuscript) to the UvA’s Current Research Information System (Pure) for long-term archiving. In addition, researchers are expected to use one of these three options to publish their work in open access:
- publish an academic publication in open access immediately with a Creative Commons licence* with a publisher; or
- make the publisher's version of a short academic publication freely available through the UvA repository (UvA-DARE) after a six-month embargo, pursuant to Section 25fa of the Dutch Copyright Act; or
- make the accepted manuscript of an academic publication freely available through the UvA repository (UvA-DARE) once the embargo imposed by the publisher has expired.’
* Preferably with a CC BY licence in line with the Plan S guidelines.
More information and support
The University Library supports and facilitates all options listed in the policy, and provides support and advice to researchers concerning open-access publishing. See sections 3–10 on this web page for more information.
If you have any questions, please send them to firstname.lastname@example.org.
3) Reliable Open Access journals and publishers
There are plenty of Open Access publishers. Generally, Open Access publishers offer just the same quality as traditional publishers. However, there are some so-called predatory journals that provide few if any editorial services or peer review in exchange for the publication fees. So how can you determine whether a publisher or journal is reliable and of good quality?
Tip: Use the guidelines on the website Think, Check, Submit for assessing journals or publishers.
Before opting for a journal or publisher, consult the following:
- Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
All publishers or journals listed in the DOAJ meet the criteria for transparency and best practice.
- Directory of Open Access Books (DOAB)
This lists book publishers and Open Access books that meet the requirements set by the OAPEN Foundation and OASPA.
- The OAPEN Foundation
Offers an overview of Open Access book publishers that meet the Open Access conditions of organisations that include the European Research Council (ERC), Wellcome and the Austrian Science Fund (FWF).
- Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA)
Publishers affiliated to the OASPA must meet set membership criteria.
Further information on assessing the quality of Open Access journals and book publishers can be found at openaccess.nl.
- Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
4) Discount schemes with publishers
Free Open Access publication based on national agreements
In recent years, the Library has entered into agreements about Open Access publication with the larger traditional publishers at national level. As a result, UvA researchers can now publish in Open Access in almost 11,000 partially open (hybrid) journals either free of charge or with a discount of up to 90% on the article processing charge (APC).
Overview of publishers and conditions
There are agreements in place with more van 15 publishers, for example with the American Chemical Society, Cambridge University Press, Elsevier, Springer and others. You can find a full list of publishers, including the conditions, at openaccess.nl.
Open Access Journal Browser
If you want to know whether a specific journal is covered by the agreements and find out which discount applies, you can look them up in the Open Access Journal Browser.
Overview of Library discount schemes
In addition to national agreements with traditional publishers, the Library also has APC discount schemes with a number of completely Open Access publishers. Discount schemes apply with the following publishers:
BioMed Central (BMC)
Over 300 Open Access journals in the biomedical and natural sciences and mathematics. UvA researchers receive a 15% discount on the APC if they indicate that the university is a supporting member.
If you have any questions, please contact Lieuwe Kool, Head of AMC Medical Library.
Publisher with journals in the biomedical sciences. Corresponding authors can benefit from a 50% APC discount when they publish open access in the hybrid journals: Journal of Endocrinology, Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, Endocrine-Related Cancer, European Journal of Endocrinology and Reproduction.
A small-scale Open Access publisher in the social sciences. For corresponding authors who use their UvA email address, Open Access publication is also free of charge with Cogitatio.
Company of Biologists
UvA corresponding authors can publish their original research articles open access without any additional costs in the journals Development, Journal of Cell Science and Journal of Experimental Biology. Please use your UvA email address and correct affiliation in the publishing workflow.
Society-owned publisher that publishes more than 85 (full open and hybrid) academic journals, as well as books and conference proceedings in the area of physics, materials science, biosciences, astronomy and astrophysics, environmental sciences, mathematics and education. UvA corresponding authors can publish open access without any additional costs in 43 hybrid journals from IOP. Please use your UvA email address and correct affiliation at submission.
John Benjamins Publishing
Publisher with almost 100 hybrid journals with a focus on the field of Language and Linguistics but also covering Cognitive Science, Psychology, (Contemporary) Philosophy, Terminology, Information Design, Literary Studies and Art History. UvA corresponding authors can publish their research articles, reviews and introductory articles open access without any additional costs in the journals from John Benjamins. Please use your UvA email address and correct affiliation at submission.
Maandblad voor Accountancy en Bedrijfseconomie (MAB)
UvA researchers can publish free of charge in the monthly Dutch Open Access Journal of Accountancy and Business Economics.
Open Access publisher with a large number of journals in almost all academic disciplines. The first/corresponding author receives a 10% discount on the APC. Select UvA membership when submitting and use a UvA email and/or complete the process from the UvA network.
Open Access publisher focusing on biology and the medical sciences. Via the Library, UvA researchers can take out a lifetime publishing plan free of charge. There are 50 of these publishing plans available. Complete the process from the UvA network.
A small scale publisher in the biochemical sciences. Corresponding authors that validate their UvA affiliation can publish any type of publication under a CC-BY license in all Portland Press hybrid and full OA journals free of charge.
An initiative of UvA researchers, currently still primarily focusing on physics. With open peer review. UvA researchers can publish in SciPost Physics free of charge.
The Sociology journal also offers free Open Access publishing to UvA researchers.
Publisher with more than 200 Open Access journals in almost all academic disciplines. UvA researchers receive a 15% discount if they indicate that the university is a supporting member. Use a UvA email address or complete the process from the UvA network.
If you have any questions, please contact Lieuwe Kool, Head of AMC Medical Library.
5) Open access publication in the UvA repository
If Open Access publication is not possible with a publisher, Open Access publication of the preprint or postprint of your publication can still be done via the university repository. This can be done via Pure, the research registration system at the UvA. Open Access by means of self-archiving is also known as ‘Green Open Access’.
After archiving, publications can be downloaded via personal pages, the UvA-DARE repository and via Google Scholar.
Publishers apply different embargo periods to the self-archiving of journal articles. Details of these can be found in the publisher agreement and on the website Sherpa Romeo. The Sherpa Romeo information can also be found in Pure.
If a publisher does not permit self-archiving, you can invoke your right pursuant to Section 25fa of the Copyright Act (see section 6 Making publications freely accessible) and still make the publisher’s version public after six months.
For more information, see the guide to Open Access publishing on the Pure support page.
6) Making publications freely accessible (Section 25fa Copyright Act)
By invoking Section 25fa of the Copyright Act (referred to as the Taverne amendment), researchers are entitled to make a short academic work funded by public resources freely accessible after a reasonable period.
Section 25fa of the Copyright Act (Auteurswet):
“The maker of a short scientific work, the research for which has been paid for in whole or in part by Dutch public funds, shall be entitled to make that work available to the public for no consideration following a reasonable period of time after the work was first published, provided that clear reference is made to the source of the first publication of the work.”
The University of Amsterdam participated in 2019 in the nationwide pilot You share, we take care! to facilitate this. The pilot was a success. Based on the Taverne amendment, the publishers’ versions of short academic publications are made freely accessible via the university repository after six months embargo.
The Library does so at the request of and in consultation with the researcher. More information on this Library service can be found at the UvA staff website, A-Z list, Open access.
7) Open Access obligations from funders / Plan S
Open access obligations
Most research funding organizations attach an Open Access obligation when providing research funds. These Open Access requirements can be found in the guidelines of the various research funding organizations, including the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) the several research programs from the European and private funders as Wellcome Trust or Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Always include the costs of Open Access in your project budget. At the UvA, there are no additional funds available for claiming this type of cost retrospectively. And advantage of the national discount schemes with Open Access publishers.
Plan S – accelerating open access
Plan S is an initiative of cOAlition S – an international consortium of research funding organizations, including the NWO – aimed at accelerating the transition towards 100% Open Access. With effect from 1 January 2021, publications that result from money from these research funding organizations should be published immediately as Open Access. Plan S primarily focuses in first instance on academic articles. The requirements for monographs and book chapters will be published at a later stage.
Open access requirements
The implementation guidelines outline how researchers can meet the requirements of Plan S. The most important requirements for publishing academic articles are: immediate Open Access, accessible under a Creative Commons license and with retention of copyright.
These conditions can be met by:
- publishing in an Open Access journal or on an Open Access platform with a CC BY license;
- archiving a final or accepted peer reviewed version (AAM) direct in the institutional repository with a CC BY license;
- publishing open access with a CC BY license in a (hybrid) journal that is party to a ‘transformative agreement’.
You can use the Journal Checker Tool that is developed by cOAlition S, to determine if a specific journals meets the Plan S requirements.
Rights Retention Strategy (RRS)
When a journal doesn’t offer any open access possibilities and the ‘self-archiving policy’ makes it impossible to archive an open version of the AAM immediately: then use the Rights Retention Strategy from cOAlition S to meet the Plan S requirements. See also the flyer on RRS with a concise explanation and instructions on how to inform the publisher.
Implementation by NWO
NWO will implement the principles of Plan S for all calls that are published from 1 January 2021 onwards and will be applicable to publications related to those calls. See for more detailed information the webpage dedicated to Plan S by NWO. Note that the principles will also be obligatory for several ZonMW programs.
If you have any questions about Plan S, you can ask them at email@example.com.
8) UvA Diamond Open Access Fund
With the adoption of the UvA Open Science programme 2020 – 2024, funding has become available for diamond open access initiatives. The funding amounts to 100,000 euros per year for as long as the programme lasts.
What is diamond open access?
With diamond open access initiatives – journals or publication platforms – authors do not have to pay for publication and the publications are made available to readers immediately and free of charge in open access. Diamond open access initiatives play a key role in the transition to an affordable, sustainable and fair system for open access publication managed by the academic community.
Funding by the UvA
Diamond open access initiatives often have difficulty securing funding and the importance of this open access model is still often underestimated in the existing open access strategies. The UvA has therefore taken its responsibility by establishing an UvA Diamond Open Access Fund. The fund supports proven diamond initiatives in which UvA researchers have published and – on request – diamond open access initiatives at the UvA which have recently been or will soon be set up or which have already proven themselves.
Two funding routes
The diamond open access funding is divided into two routes; per year, 50,000 euros is available for each one.
Route 1: Donations to diamond initiatives in which UvA researchers have published.
The UvA donates to diamond or non-APC open access initiatives in which UvA researchers have published, provided that a journal is a) registered in the Directory of Open Access Journals and that b) publication with a CC BY licence (in accordance with the terms of Plan S) is possible. The UvA's Pure registration system is the source used for the annual identification of diamond open access publications.
Route 2: Funding on request for UvA open access initiatives.
For the purpose of starting new UvA diamond initiatives or expanding, scaling up or professionalising existing ones, substantiated applications can be submitted for (one-off) funding from the fund. The application deadline for 2022 is June 1st.
The fund is managed by the University Library. For questions about the fund or to request the procedure and conditions to submit an application for Route 2, mail to Pascal Braak (open access specialist).
9) Finding Open Access publications
Many Open Access publications can be found using the Library’s discovery tool CataloguePlus (filter by ‘availability’ --> open access) and the Google Scholar search engine. There are also several search engines that specifically target Open Access publications (articles and books):
- OpenAIRE – Explore: provides access to over 27 million Open Access publications from 15,000 institutions and 18 research funding authorities.
- ArXiv: repository with (approx. 1.5 million) academic Open Access publications and pre-publications in mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, economics and statistics.
- The Directory of Open Access Books (DOAB) and OAPEN can be used to find peer-reviewed Open Access books.
- CORE: Open Access search engine providing access to academic repositories across the world. Provides access to 135 million indexed Open Access publications.
- Unpaywall is a browser extension that detects Open Access versions of articles on publishers’ websites. If the Library has no subscription and you cannot read a publication, this extension can provide a solution if you use the Firefox and Chrome browsers.
An explanation of some frequently used Open Access terminology:
Author Processing Charge (APC)
The fee paid to publish an Open Access article. In 2017, the average APC was € 1,700. Depending on the journal and publisher, the APC for Open Access articles varies from € 400 to as much as € 4,000.
Book Processing Charge (BPC)
The fee paid to publish an Open Access book. The fee for publishing an Open Access book varies according to the publisher and is between € 7,000 and € 15,000.
Unlike APC's for articles in hybrid journals, there is no general or UvA scheme to finance BPC's. See: OA Books Toolkit for information on OA book publishing, including funding options.
For the publisher, the corresponding author is the person who submits the article. In order to qualify for a discount scheme, it is usually a requirement for the corresponding author to have an affiliation (employment relationship) with the UvA.
Creative Commons (CC)
If you declare a Creative Commons licence to be applicable to a publication, this indicates that you are waiving certain statutory copyrights. There are various types of CC licences, of which CC BY is the least restrictive. Most research funding authorities demand or recommend this licence because this means that the publication is fully accessible according to the definitions of the Berlin Declaration (2003). See also: Guide to Creative Commons for scholarly publications and educational resources on the use of CC licences.
Diamond Open Access
If an author is able to publish Open Access in an Open Access journal or on an Open Access platform because the costs have already been paid by (academic) institutions, this is referred to as Diamond Open Access. Examples of this include Glossa or SciPost.
Gold Open Access
If a publication is immediately published in Open Access by a publisher with a Creative Commons licence, this is referred to as Gold Open Access. Generally, an Author Processing Charge (APC) or Book Processing Charge (BPC) is paid for this.
Green Open Access
If a version (postprint, preprint, publisher's PDF) of a publication is made public retrospectively by means of self-archiving in the University repository, for example, this is referred to as Green Open Access. No charges are involved in this.
A hybrid journal is a traditional subscription journal that also allows Open Access publication in exchange for the payment of an APC. The UvA has agreed discount schemes with the large traditional publishers at national level, enabling UvA researchers to publish free of charge in many of these journals.
If a publication is freely accessible for everyone and its content can be read, downloaded, copied, distributed, printed, indexed, used in education, searched in and searched for, or otherwise used by anyone in accordance with the legally valid agreements, the publication is referred to as being Open Access. See also the Berlin Declaration (2003).
However, publications that are only freely accessible (Green Open Access) are often also referred to as Open Access, but they are subject to normal copyright and do not meet the above definition.
Accepted version after peer review. This is the final version of the publication that will be published, but still without the publisher's specific layout (style, page numbers). This version is also referred to as the author accepted manuscript (AAM).
Preprints are (academic) manuscripts that have not been peer-reviewed or published in a traditional publishing venue. In Open Science and academic publishing, the preprint is an increasingly important form of academic communication. By posting preprints, either on institutional or individual websites or preprint servers such as Arxiv, Repec and Zenodo, researchers can rapidly share their findings and build upon each other’s work. See also: A practical guide to preprints.